Alabama History Timeline
Cliff Dwelling Indians lived in the Alabama region.
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, a Spanish explorer, sailed into Mobile Bay.
Panfilo de Narvaez led an expedition which passed through the coastal waters of Alabama.
Hernando de Soto led an expedition through Alabama. He was the first white person to explore the interior of Alabama.
De Soto and his men were defeated by Chief Tuscaloosa in the battle of Mabila.
Tristan de Luna searched for gold in Alabama. He set up small settlements in Mobile Bay and Clairborne.
De Luna was removed from his command and forced to return to Mexico.
The first permanent white settlement was established by Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, and Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville.
The Moyne brothers founded Fort Louis. This French colony later became known as Louisiana.
Huge floods forced the French to move 27 miles south to the present site of Mobile. It was also called Fort Louis.
Fort Louis renamed Fort Conde.
Most of the French colony of Louisiana was given to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of Paris. Mobile became a part of west Florida. Northern Alabama was included in the Illinois Territory.
Spain declared war on the United Kingdom.
Mobile was captured by Bernanrdo de Galvez.
The Mobile region was given to Spain in the Treaty of Paris.
The Treaty of San Lorenzo was made with the help of Thomas Pinckney. The Treaty was also known as the Pinckney Treaty. The Treaty fixed the southern border of the United States at the 31st parallel of north latitude. All of present-day Alabama except the Mobile region became a part of the United States.
The Alabama region became a part of the Mississippi Territory.
The United States seized the Mobile region from Spain.
April 15 - The United States flag flew over the entire region of Alabama for the first time.
The Creek Indians massacred hundreds of settlers at Fort Mims.
The Creek Indians were defeated by General Andrew Jackson in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The Alabama Territory was established. St. Stephens became the capital.
The territory's first constitution was established.
December 14 - Alabama became the 22nd state. William Wyatt Bibb was the first state governor.
Huge floods from the Alabama river caused great damage to the state.
The capital was moved to Tuscaloosa.
Federal troops forced all the remaining Indians to move west out of Alabama.
The "Alabama Platform" was introduced. It states that the federal government did not have the right to ban slaves from the territories.
January 11 - Alabama seceded from the union. They declared themselves the Republic of Alabama.
February 8 - Alabama became part of the Confederate States of America. Montgomery became its capital.
May - The Confederate capital moved from Montgomery to Richmond, Virginia.
Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest captured Union raiders at Cedar Bluffs.
The Battle of Mobile Bay took place in Alabama. The Union forces won the battle.
Union General James H. Wilson won victories at Selma and Montgomery.
Alabama increased their state debt from $8 million to $32 million during the Reconstruction.
June 25 - Alabama was readmitted to the Union.
A new state constitution as adopted.
Alabama's first blast furnace began operating in Birmingham. This was important for their economy. The area became a great iron and steel center.
Iron and steel making became Alabama's most important manufacturing industry.
After the United States entered World War I, shipbuilding became important in Mobile.
The Alabama-Tombigbee river system flooded causing $6 million damage.
More than 60 Alabama banks failed. More than $16 million was lost.
Alabama passed a state income tax law and the Budget Control Act. It helped to save the state from bankruptcy.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was created by the federal government. It was given the responsibility of building flood-control and electric-power projects on the Tennessee River.
During World War I I Alabama's industrial and agricultural production increased.
The Redstone Arsenal was established by the government in Huntsville. The arsenal developed rockets, satellites and spacecrafts.
Many Alabamians left the state to find jobs in the North and the West
The United States Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional.
Martin Luther King, Jr. directed the Montgomery bus boycott.
A federal court ordered Montgomery to desegregate its buses.
George C. Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville was established.
Most of the iron ore mines in Alabama had been closed.
Governor George C. Wallace tried to halt the integration of Alabama's public schools.
June - Wallace stood in the doorway of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama. He refused to admit two blacks. John F. Kennedy called in the National Guard to enforce the law.
September 9 - Alabama Gov George Wallace served a federal injunction to stop orders of state police to bar black students from enrolling in white schools.
February 1 - In Selma, Alabama, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 of his followers were arrested on their civil rights march. They protested against voter discrimination in Alabama.
March - King led a march from Selma to Montgomery to protest discrimination of voters rights.
March 24 - The Freedom Marchers reached Montgomery, Ala.
August The Voting Right Act was passed by Congress insuring the right of blacks to vote.
The state legislature increased taxes on cigarettes and alcohol to pay for government services.
Guy Hunt became the first Republican to be elected governor since the Reconstruction.
Hunt was removed from office. He was convicted for felony ethics violations.
Hunt was pardoned by the state parole board.
Historical Sites worth visiting
On April 12, 1882 the giant Sloss Furnaces began producing pig iron and it did not stop until almost ninety years later. Now recognized as a National Historic Landmark Sloss Furnaces is open to the public as a museum of industry. With its massive furnaces, web of pipes, and tall smokestacks, it offers us a glimpse into the great industrial past of the South and the nation.